1 the quantity a cask will hold [syn: caskful]
2 a cylindrical container that holds liquids [syn: barrel]
A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves and bound with iron hoops. Someone who makes such barrels is known as a cooper. Contemporary barrels are also made of aluminium and plastic.
Barrels often have a convex shape, bulging at the middle. This constant bulge makes it relatively easy to roll a well-built wooden barrel on its side, changing directions with little friction. It also helps to distribute stress evenly in the material by making the container more spherical.
The "chime hoop" is the iron hoop nearest the end of a wooden barrel, the "bilge hoops" those nearest the bulge, or centre.
The stopper used to seal the hole in a barrel is called the bung.
In Europe in ancient times liquids like oil and wine were carried in vessels, for instance amphora, sealed with pine resin. The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, as a result of their commercial and military contacts with the Gauls, who had been making barrels for several centuries.
For nearly 2,000 years barrels were the most convenient form of shipping or storage container for those who could afford the superior price. All kinds of bulk goods, from nails to gold coins, were stored in them. Bags and most crates were cheaper, but they were not as sturdy and they were more difficult to manhandle for the same weight. Barrels slowly lost their importance in the 20th century, with the introduction of pallet-based logistics and containerization.
In the mid 20th century, 55-gallon steel drums began to be used for the storage and transport of fluids such as water, oils and hazardous waste. Empty drums occasionally became musical instruments in a steel pan band.
Aging in barrelsThe term "barrel" typically refers to wooden vessels that are small enough to be moved by hand, up to puncheon size (see below). Barrels are used for the storage of liquids, to ferment wine, to age wine (notably brandy, sherry and port) and whiskey. Some wine is fermented "in barrel," as opposed to a neutral container such as a steel or concrete tank. Wine can also be fermented in large wooden tanks, often called "open-tops" because they are open to the atmosphere. Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits are called "casks", and they are large (up to thousands of gallons) with either elliptical or round heads.
Beer "Barrels"Although it is common to refer to draught beer containers of any size as barrels, in the UK this is strictly correct only if the container holds 36 imperial gallons. The terms "keg" and "cask" refer to containers of any size, the distinction being that kegs are used for beers intended to be served using external gas cylinders. Cask ales undergo part of their fermentation process in their containers, called casks.
Casks are available in several sizes, and it is common to refer to "a firkin" or "a kil" (kilderkin) instead of a cask.
In the United States, the term "keg" commonly means a 'half barrel' size container.
English traditional, winePre-1824 definitions continued to be used in the US, the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches being the standard gallon for liquids (the corn gallon of 268.8 cubic inches for solids). In Britain that gallon was replaced by the Imperial gallon. The tierce later became the petrol barrel. The tun was originally 256 gallons, which explains where the quarter, 8 bushels or 64 (wine) gallons, comes from.
English traditional, beer and aleThe US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (116.34777 litres), half a gallon less than the traditional wine barrel. (26 U.S.C. §5051http://fatty.law.cornell.edu/uscode/search/display.html?terms=barrel%2031%20gallons&url=/uscode/html/uscode26/usc_sec_26_00005051----000-.html)
Oil barrelThe standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (34.972 Imperial gallons or 158.987 L). This measurement originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields, and permitted both British and American merchants to refer to the same unit, based on the old English wine measure, the tierce.
Earlier, another size of whiskey barrel was the most common size; this was the barrel for proof spirits, which was of the same volume as 5 US bushels. However, by 1866 the oil barrel was standardized at 42 US gallons.
Oil has not actually been shipped in barrels http://www.slate.com/id/2115219/ since the introduction of oil tankers, but the 42-US-gallon size is still used as a unit for measurement, pricing, and in tax and regulatory codes. Each barrel is refined into about 19½ gallons of gasoline, the rest becoming other products such as jet fuel and heating oil.
The current standard volume for barrels for chemicals and food is .
Dry goodsA barrel is standardized for other products:
Other usesDue to the traditional barrel's distinctive shape and construction method, the term has been used to describe a variety of largely unrelated objects, such as the gun barrel and barrel organ.
The English idiom over a barrel means to be in a predicament or helpless in a situation where others are in control: "I have no choice in the matter — my creditors have me over a barrel." The phrase is said to originate from two 19th century practices: rolling drowning victims over a barrel to clear their lungs of water, or flogging someone who is bent over a barrel.
cask in Arabic: برميل
cask in Czech: Sud
cask in Danish: Fad (beholder)
cask in German: Fass
cask in Spanish: Barril
cask in Esperanto: Barelo
cask in Persian: بشکه
cask in French: Tonneau (récipient)
cask in Scottish Gaelic: Baraille
cask in Croatian: Bačva
cask in Italian: Botte
cask in Hebrew: חבית
cask in Luxembourgish: Faass
cask in Lithuanian: Statinė
cask in Dutch: Vat (verpakking)
cask in Japanese: 樽
cask in Norwegian: Tønne
cask in Norwegian Nynorsk: Tønne
cask in Polish: Beczka
cask in Russian: Бочка
cask in Slovak: Sud
cask in Slovenian: Sod (posoda)
cask in Finnish: Tynnyri
cask in Swedish: Tunna
cask in Turkish: Fıçı
cask in Samogitian: Bačka
bag, barrel, basket, bole, bottle, box, box up, breaker, butt, can, capsule, carton, case, column, crate, cylinder, cylindroid, drum, encase, encyst, firkin, hamper, hogshead, jar, keg, kilderkin, pack, package, parcel, pillar, pipe, pot, puncheon, roll, roller, rouleau, rundlet, sack, tank, tin, trunk, tube, tun, vat, water butt